With over three decades of experience working with some of the world’s top charged particle device designers, manufacturers and scientists, Opera produces reliable and effective multiphysics designs. Supported by engineers, expert in both finite element modelling and industrial applications, Opera ensure that users’ design solutions are easy to create and with a high level of accuracy.
The Charged Particle Module calculates the interaction of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic fields. It uses the Finite Element method to solve Maxwell’s equations for the steady-state case in a discretized model, and provides a self-consistent solution including the effects of space-charge, self-magnetic fields and relativistic motion.
A comprehensive set of emitter models is provided, including thermionic and field effect emission from surfaces, secondary emission from surfaces and within volumes (used to model gas ionization), and models for unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas. It is possible to include multiple species of charged particles, each having user defined charge and mass.
Field emission, compared to the thermionic emission, can be a more attractive mechanism in extracting electrons from the cathodes because the electrons are emitted at room temperature (cold cathode) by the quantum mechanical field effect which requires less electrical power. Growing in popularity are carbon nano-tube emitters (as shown in the image on the right), which, because of their size, may be used in more portable devices.
• X-ray tubes
• Beam focussing
• Electron guns
• Microwave tube focussing (DC)
• Microwave tube collectors (DC)
• Ion-beam sources
• Plasma devices
• Thin film PVD coatings
• Thin film etching
• Ion thrusters
Frequently Asked Questions
What emitter models does the Opera Charged Particle module offer?
- Thermal saturation
- Space-charge limited emission
• Field effect
• Plasma free surface
• Surface secondary emission (backscattered and true secondary)
• Volume interactions (backscatter, ionisation)
• Magnetized plasma
• User defined emitter
What does Opera display in terms of ion beam statistics?
From these, simple additional computations can generate beam metrics, including the moments, emittance and phase space.