Opera-2d and Opera-3d for Machines

The Opera Simulation Software Suite is a powerful interactive Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software package proven to provide accurate electromagnetic field modelling for all types of machines, including axial flux topologies and linear motion devices.

Electromagnetic and other physics solvers, that provide different levels of analysis complexity, are available to offer users the best tools for their requirements.

Comprehensive material modelling options (including magnetization, demagnetization in service and full vector hysteresis material model) as well as easy definition of external drive circuits are all geared towards facilitating machines design.

The integrated Optimizer provides an efficient route from concept to competitive product.

The Machines Environments (ME) is an easy to use, template-driven development tool specifically designed for electrical machines engineers.

2d or 3d?

Opera-2d offers functionality for designing most radial flux machines in two dimensions, by using the assumption that for the majority of the length of the machine a Cartesian (XY) cross-sectional analysis accurately defines the behaviour (in effect, the machine is effectively infinitely long).

Opera-3d supplies three dimensional modelling, essential when:

  • the length of the machine is short compared to the radius
  • the rotor and stator lengths are substantially different and this cannot be adequately compensated for by changes in material properties
  • axial flux paths exist that significantly affect the performance
  • more accurate representations of the end windings/induced current return paths are needed

Depending on the geometrical complexity and symmetry, users have the option of using either Opera-2d or Opera-3d.

Statics, Steady-state and Transient with motion

Opera’s Static solver provides an accurate representation of the electromagnetic behaviour of the machine. This is useful for certain types of machines where the fields can be considered as ‘frozen’ in time (as in the case of DC machines) or travelling at the same speed as the rotor (Synchronous Machines).

Users can deploy the Steady-state (timevarying AC) solvers for machine analyses that include time varying fields, for example the induction machine or torque vs. slip characterisation.

By using the Transient with motion solvers, users can analyse completely the real-world performance of any machine. This also includes analysis of the effects of mechanical coupling.

Opera’s range of solvers allow users to evaluate Iron losses (including eddy current, hysteresis and excess/rotational components) for any type of machine. This can be done using Fourier methods with losses described by Steinmetz based formulations or directly from manufacturers curves. Users can calculate copper losses simply from the current flowing in simulated windings. Opera’s hysteresis solver gives users the ability to obtain explicit hysteresis losses (including rotational component losses and eddy current losses) by explicitly defining the materials’ conductivities. Any loss quantity can be used as a heat source in thermal analyses.


  • Induction machines
  • Synchronous machines
  • Brushless machines
  • SRM and synchrel
  • Clawpole generators
  • Axial flux
  • Commutating machines
  • External rotor
  • Magnetic gearing
  • Linear motion machines

Software Tools

  • Application environments
  • 2d & 3d modelling
  • Solid modelling capability
  • Coupled physics options
  • Parameterization
  • Optimization
  • Graphical circuit editor
  • CAD import/export
  • Simulink® integration
  • SPEED® import

Multi-physics Capabilities

  • Static, steady state & transient electromagnetics (including circuits and eddy currents)
  • Coupled rigid body dynamics
  • Static stress and eigen frequency
  • Static and transient thermal
  • Vector hysteresis
  • Magnetization/demagnetization
  • Superconductivity
  • Surface impedance

Machine Type Calculation Statics Steady State (AC) Motional
Induction Performance vs slip   ü ü
Dynamic behaviour (inc. fault conditions)     ü
Synchronous Open-circuit, short-sircuit and load ü   ü
Negative sequence loss   ü ü
Frequency response   ü ü
Dynamic behaviour (inc. fault conditions)     ü
Brushless/PM Performance vs position ü   ü
Cogging torque ü   ü
Ld/Lq Analysis ü   ü
Dynamic behaviour (inc fault conditions)     ü
SRM/SynchRel Performance vs position ü   ü
Dynamic behaviour (inc fault conditions)     ü
DC/Universal Performance vs commutation angle ü   ü
Dynamic behaviour (inc fault conditions)     ü