The Charged Particle Module calculates the interaction of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic fields. It uses the Finite Element method to solve Maxwell’s equations for the steady-state case in a discretized model, and provides a self-consistent solution including the effects of space-charge, self-magnetic fields and relativistic motion.
A comprehensive set of emitter models is provided, including thermionic and field effect emission from surfaces, secondary emission from surfaces and within volumes (used to model gas ionization), and models for unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas. It is possible to include multiple species of charged particles, each having user defined charge and mass.
The charging of dielectric materials and the effect this has on the solution can also be modelled with the optional Lossy Dielectric Module. The Charged Particle module can be used in a multiphysics analysis – whereby the particle beam generates heat and/or a stress analysis deforms the device.
- X-ray tubes
- Beam focussing
- Electron guns
- Microwave tube focussing (DC)
- Microwave tube collectors (DC)
- Ion-beam sources
- Plasma devices
- Thin film PVD coatings
- Thin film etching
- Ion thrusters