Opera-3d contains a high-frequency analysis module, formerly known as SOPRANO. It solves the full wave equation including displacement currents for devices that are comparable in size to the wavelength at its operating frequency.
Two types of analysis are possible in this module; an eigenfrequency analysis to determine the modes of a resonant cavity, and steady-state to solve the equations at pre-defined frequencies.
The Eigenvalue solver is designed to solve resonant cavity models containing lossless, isotropic dielectrics. The walls of a cavity are treated as perfect electrical conductors (PEC) which is a good approximation at high frequency.
The Eigenvalue solver finds the eigenvalues above a given frequency, or within a specified range using a direct solution method. Optimal re-ordering methods are used to minimize the memory requirements.
The Steady-state option solves the wave equation in terms of the electric field. Non-zero boundary conditions are defined in terms of magnetic vector potential or electric field strength. The full Helmholtz equation is solved, including loss and propagation terms. The resulting complex solution can provide results at any time in the ac cycle (including time average and RMS quantities). Boundary conditions are used in three ways. Firstly, they can provide a way of reducing the size of models by exploiting symmetry. Secondly, they are used to approximate the field at large distances from the model (far-field boundaries). Thirdly, they may be used as driving terms.
The programs incorporate state of the art algorithms for the calculation of electromagnetic fields and advanced finite element numerical analysis procedures. Both high frequency simulation modules can be used as stages in Opera-3d’s powerful multiphysics tools, allowing inclusion of thermal and structural effects