Quenching of superconducting magnets can be analyzed using the Opera integrated suite of finite element (FE) software for electromagnetic device simulation. The Opera quench module utilises the temperature rise of a superconducting magnet during a quench, including the transition to being resistive as the quench propagates through the magnet. The heat that triggers a quench event can be from a variety of sources. In a DC system typically it will be due to a failure with the cryogenic system, ramping the system too quickly or in test situations can be introduced deliberately. In simulation we can include this heat as a surface or volume property or through rate dependant, ohmic or hysteresis losses in materials due to current flowing or fields in them. In this instance we have significant anisotropy in the material properties as thermal conductivity is dominant along the winding direction, requiring specific modelling techniques for efficiency and accuracy.
The quench module uses advanced FE techniques to model the highly non-linear transient behaviour of a magnet during a quench. Using an algorithm which couples the electromagnetic solution to the thermal and circuit solutions (to determine the currents in the coils), the full quenching process can be analyzed.
- Magnet quenching
- Induced quenching
- Quench-band analysis
- Protection circuit design
- Low temperature superconductors
- High temperature superconductors
- Inter-turn/layer voltages
- Magnet charging